The Synagogue of Tomar (repost)

Since many people have been looking for this post about the Synagogue of Tomar and its address, I decided to repeat the post I did about it in April 2009 (I think … time flies).
Torah  in a synagogue with a hand holding a silver pointer
Tomar, a small, historic town north-east of Lisbon, is best known for the remnants of an impressive Templar fortress and a superb monastery, but less known is Tomar’s synagogue, the oldest existant Jewish prayer house in Portugal.
outside-tomar-11
There must have been a Jewish settlement in Tomar already during the early 14th century, as it is mentioned in an inscription on a gravestone of a rabbi Josef of Tomar who died in Faro in 1315. An official Spanish document issued in Zamora on October 26, 1475 by In October 1475 D. Alfonso V mentions the Jewish community of Tomar in an official Spanish document.

The synagogue must have been built in the 15th century, between 1430 and 1460. It was located in the middle of the Judearia (Jewish quarter), on what was later named the Rua nova que foi judaria, the New street that was the Jewish quarter.

The synagogue of Tomar was in use until 1496. Then, King Manuel I ‘‘The Fortunate’ of Portugal issued an edict, giving Jews the choice to convert to Christianity or to leave Portugal.

entrance-door-2

In 1497 the synagogue stopped being a house of worship and was sold and sold and sold until in 1516 it became a prison and in 1543 an Inquisition Tribunal was established in Tomar. The years of the 16th century, when it was transferred to the city hall. An Inquisition tribunal was established in Tomar in 1543, but its activity was stopped in 1548, and it is said that the synagogue was used as a Christian chapel in the early 17th century and then became a hay loft, sold and sold again eventually to a grocer, who used it as his warehouse.
interior-3Finally, probably with the help of its then owner, Joaquim Cardoso Tavares, it was declared a national monument. That was in 1921.
And then came Samuel Schwarz (Szwarc) a Polish mining engineer, who purchased the building in 1923. Samuel Schwarz dedicated himself to restoring Jewish life in Portugal and at his own expense undertook the restoration of the synagogue and in 1939 the building became a museum.
Schwarz and his wife were granted Portuguese citizenship and thus, survived WWII.He dedicated himself to restoring and organizing Jewish life in that country, even serving for a time as President of the Jewish Community of Lisbon. Samuel Schwarz undertook at his own expense the works of cleaning and excavation of the synagogue of Tomar.

interior-tomar-2

Plans to transferring the building to the State of Portugal could not be realised because of a lack of funds. Only in 1939, following a donation by Samuel Schwarz, the building was converted into a museum. In return Samuel Schwarz and his wife were granted Portuguese citizenship that protected them during the Second World War.

The Museu Luso-Hebraico Abraham Zacuto (the Abraham Zacuto Portuguese Jewish Museum), named after Abraham Zacuto (c.1450-c.1522), the author of the celebrated Almanach Perpetuum. Published in Leiria in 1496 that contains mathematical tables that were used by many Portuguese navigators during the early 16th century and later. There are different archaeological findings that attest the Jewish presence in Portugal during the Middle Ages. Among numerous gravestones that form the bulk of the collection, there is an inscription, dated 1307, from the main synagogue of Lisbon, and a second most interesting 13th century inscription from Belmonte, upon which the Divine Name is represented by three dots in rather the same manner as on the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Tomar was one of the places we never missed on our trips and at the time, we had to go to such and such a number on I-forget-which street, to have an old lady open the door for us and lock it after our visit.

synagogue-5

I have no idea how it is today, but I still have the synagogue in my heart and in my mind, I still see the four pillars – symbol of the four mothers of Isræl – Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah – that carry ceiling of the twelve arches, supposed to represent the twelve Tribes of Isræl.

Something absolutely fascinating are the acoustics in Tomar’s synagogue. Why? Because they are near perfect and brought about by clay jars sealed upside down into the walls in the four upper corners of the room. And that, believe it or not, was the ingenious traditional method to improve the acoustics used during the Middle Ages for.

The Torah scrolls are being kept in a wooden cupboard. Old stone carvings that apparently ornamented the original structure are exhibited around the room walls.

torah-tomar-6

In 1985 a second small room was discovered, partially below the current street level. This, it turned out, used to be the mikveh – the ritual bath. In this room you’ll find a treasure of artifacts, mostly ceramic bowls and it seems that a well, has been discovered in the patio next to the mikveh.

If ever you find yourself in Portugal, don’t miss this very special building. It is one of the very few of that era that is still standing. Pogroms are international and have destroyed so many beautiful buildings.

entrance-synagogue-end

Address:

Sinagoga

Rua Dr. Joaquim Jacinto 73

2300 Tomar

Portugal

Exceptionally a comment I want you all to see, with big thank you from me:
Cón. Francisco
padrez.blogspot.com/
Submitted on 2009/04/28 at 2:34pm

I’m reminded of the history of ‘alheiras’, the sausage ubiqitous in the northeast of Portugal. When the Jews were driven out of Spain in 1492, their proerties coniscated by thr “Catholic” monarchs, Fernando and Isabela, many came to Portugal, and the Portuguese were much less actively anti-semitic. Spanish priests working for the Inquisition came as well, seeking out secret Jews. One of the best ways to find them was to see which families didn’t use the village smokehouse for their pork sausage (smokehouses were to costly to own your own). So… the Jews invented a new kind of Portuguese sausage, using only chicken and flour and spices, to bring to the smokehouse.
Frequently, their Portuguese Catholic neighbors knew that they were Jews, or “Conversos” in name only, but a mix of Portuguese hospitable openness and traditional dislike of the Spanish kept many Jews alive in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.

A Portuguese diplomat, stationed in Bordeaux, France, saved about 30 times as many lives, and 10 times as many Jews, as Oskar Schidler of “Schindler’s List” fame. Aristides de Sousa Mendes managed to issue perhaps 50,000 visas to people fleeing the Nazis, between June 17th and 19th, in direct contradiction of Salazar’s orders, and at least 30,000 refugees from the Nazis (including some 10,000 Jews) got across Spain and into neutral Portugal . Because of his heroic act, the Portuguese dictatorship not only fired Sousa Mendes but ensured that he would never work again– he died in 1958 as a charity case in Franciscan hospital in Lisboa, completely destitute.
Although recognized as a ‘Righteous Gentile’ by Israel that year (and 6 years later, receiving Israels’s highest award for his actions), his name was never mentioned by the Portuguese press, and few in Portugal ever heard of im. Only after ‘Cravos’, the bloodless military coup of April 25, 1974 that overthrew the dictatorship and paved the way to democracy, was Sousa Mendes’ heroism made public in Portugal, and even now many Portuguese have never heard of this man who, for the sake of his Christian faith, risked everything and was punished so harshly.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: